Grade 9 Modern World History and Grade 10 American History 2017-18 Summer Assignment Notes Mr. Martin/Mr. East For your Fort Hayes World History/American History Summer Assignment you will be reviewing and preparing for a formative assessment (quiz) on basic Social Studies skills that will be given on the first day of class. Study the notes below carefully, then take the practice test. Bring these materials with you on the first day of school. The use of primary and secondary sources of information includes an examination of the credibility of each source, that is, whether or not they are believable. This is accomplished by checking sources for: 1) the qualifications and reputation of the author 2) agreement with other credible sources 3) perspective or bias of the author (including use of stereotypes) 4) accuracy and internal consistency 5) the circumstances in which the author prepared the source Sourcing 1. Consider who wrote a document as well as the circumstances of its creation. 2. Before reading a document, ask: a) Who wrote this? b) What is the authorâ€™s point of view? c) Why was it written? d) When was it written? (A long time or short time after the event?) e) Is this source believable? Why? Why not? Contextualization 1. Locate a document in time and place and to understand how these factors shape its content. 2. When reading a document, ask: a) What else was going on at the time this was written? b) What was it like to be alive at this time? c) What things were different back then? d) What things were the same? e) What would it look like to see this event through the eyes of someone who lived back then? Close Reading 1. Evaluate sources and analyze rhetoric by asking: a) What claims does the author make? b) What evidence does the author use to support those claims? c) How is this document supposed to make me feel? d) What words or phrases does the author use to convince me that he/she is right? e) What information does the author leave out? Corroboration 1. Consider details across multiple sources to determine points of agreement and disagreement. 2. Ask: a) What do other pieces of evidence say? b) Am I finding the same information everywhere? c) Am I finding different versions of the story? If yes, why might that be? d) Where else could I look to find out about this? Being able to correctly identify an authorâ€™s claim as well as cite the evidence the author uses to support this claim are important skills to master in studying history. Claim: A claim states your position on the issue you have chosen to write about. 1. A good claim is not obvious. Why bother proving a point nobody could disagree with? 2. A good claim is engaging. Consider your audienceâ€™s attention span and make claims which point out new ideas: teach the reader something new. 3. A good claim is not overly vague. Attacking enormous issues leads only to generalizations and vague assertions; keep it manageable. 4. A good claim is logical; it emerges from a reasonable consideration of the evidence. However, this does not mean that evidence has only one logical interpretation. . Evidence: the facts or data which you cite to support your claim. Like a lawyer presenting evidence to a jury, you must support your claim with facts; an unsupported claim is merely an assertion. Data can include: 1. Facts or statistics: objectively determined data about your topic. (Note: â€•objectiveâ€– may be open to debate.) 2. Expert opinion: Learned opinion, theory, and analysis that you should cite frequently, both to support your argument and to disagree with. Sources must be quoted, paraphrased, and cited appropriately. 3. Primary research: an explanation and discussion of your own research findings and how they relate to your topic. Grade 9 Modern World History/Grade 10 American History 2017-18 Summer Assignment Practice Quiz Mr. Martin/Mr. East Use the image below to answer question 1: “Washington crossing the Delaware: on the evening of December 25th, 1776, previous to the Battle of Trenton,” created in 1876 by John B. Cameron. 1. From the choices below choose the statement that best refutes or opposes the following claim: The image, “Washington crossing the Delaware,” is a useful resource for historians who wish to understand what happened during the Battle of Trenton of 1776. A. This painting was created 100 years after the Battle of Trenton, so it is of limited use to a historian researching the Battle of Trenton. B. This painting is not a primary source, so it is not useful to a historian researching the Battle of Trenton. C. A historian would need more than just this one source to research the Battle of Trenton. D. Paintings are not reliable sources of information and are not useful for historians. 2. Which source on the writing of the Constitution would be considered a primary source? A. A textbook chapter about the Constitution B. A newspaper article written in 1861 C. Notes from the Constitutional Convention written by James Madison D. The book, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution, by Charles Beard Below is an excerpt from President Benjamin Harrisonâ€™s proclamation of Columbus Day as a national holiday in 1892: â€œI Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States of America . . . do hereby appoint Friday, Oct. 21, 1892, the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus, as a general holiday for the people of the United States. On this day let the peopleâ€¦honor Columbus and the great achievements of the past four hundred years of American lifeâ€¦ In the churches and in the streets, let there be expressions of gratitude to God for the devout faith of the Italian discoverer, and for His care and guidance which has directed our history and so abundantly blessed our people.â€ -Harrison’s Proclamation in The Record Union, July 22, 1892 3. Which one of the facts below might help most explain why Benjamin Harrison created a holiday to honor Christopher Columbus? A. Columbus enslaved people he encountered on his voyages but refused to baptize them because Catholic law prohibited the enslavement of Christians. B. Benjamin Harrison was running for re-election in 1892 and millions of Catholic Italian immigrants could vote. C. Although Harrisonâ€™s proclamation only called for a holiday in 1892, the United States has celebrated Columbus Day every year since 1934. D. Columbus was an Italian Catholic. 4. In which of the following situations would a historian need to use secondary sources? A. When studying the private lives of World War II leaders B. When researching different interpretations of the causes of World War II C. When explaining the battlefield decisions of World War II generals D. When trying to understand the personal experiences of World War II soldiers 5. A historian studying European exploration in Africa in the 1800s wishes to prove that British soldiers under Captain Gibson Haynes acted inappropriately in shooting the Igbo people of the Congo basin would need to research what sources to prove his claim? A. Eyewitness accounts recorded by British soldiers B. Eyewitness accounts passed down by the Igbo C. Artifacts left behind like forensic evidence from the victims D. All of the above 6. When presenting an argument, why is the use of facts taken from credible sources important? A. Credible sources are almost as useful as opinions. B. Without credible sources an argument may contain only statements of opinion. C. Credible sources are helpful in forming unstated assumptions. D. Use of reliable credible sources leads directly to logical fallacies. A newspaper interviewed four people and asked them to describe the kind of childrenâ€™s television programs they would like to see added to TV. They gave the following statements: I. â€œI want programs that show children from many different countries and backgrounds so that children can see it is important to learn how to get along together.â€ II. â€œIâ€™d like to see programs that focus on family values. The value of the family has to be stressed, whether itâ€™s a family with a single parent or both parents.â€ III. â€œWe need more current events shows for younger children. Kids need to know more about their world so they can learn to understand world problems when they grow up.â€ IV. â€œIâ€™d like to make kids aware of the danger of drugs. A government report shows that schools with drug education programs have lower rates of drug abuse.â€ 7. Which statement is supported with evidence? A. Statement I B. Statement II C. Statement III D. Statement IV 8. A political action committee produces a television commercial that criticizes past actions of a candidate for president. The advertisement could be a credible source of information if the claims in the advertisement A. rely mainly on the use of stereotypes. B. are based on unstated assumptions. C. are consistent with other credible sources of information. D. are presented in a manner that is clear and easy to understand. 9. Which source of information about candidates for public office probably would be free of bias? A. A pamphlet written by a political campaign worker B. A newspaper editorial stating the newspaperâ€™s position C. A reprint of the complete text of the last candidate debate D. A political advertisement paid for by a political candidate 10. In an election campaign, voters receive letters describing each candidateâ€™s position on the issues. These letters might be considered credible sources of information if they A. identify the writer so that his/her qualifications and reputation may be evaluated. B. use stereotypes effectively in describing the candidates. C. avoid references to other sources of information about the candidates. D. avoid presenting facts that would confuse the reader.